Cecilia Morgan – What a difference there is between this country and America”: Native Peoples’ Letter-writing Across the British Empire, 1800-1870

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Cecilia Morgan (University of Toronto)
What a difference there is between this country and America”: Native Peoples’ Letter-writing Across the British Empire, 1800-1870

Literary and historical scholarship on Native peoples’ movements within, through, and beyond the settler colonies of early to mid-nineteenth century British North America has explored their production of published texts. The publications of the Cherokee-Scots-Mohawk soldier, explorer, and writer John Norton, and the Ojibwa Methodist ministers Kahkewaquonaby (Peter Jones) or Kahgegagabowh (George Copway) have been the subject of various analyses in Canadian and American Native history.  However, while noting these authors’ fluency in English, cultivated primarily because of their missionary education, familial relationships with British settlers, and negotiations with the colonial authorities, scholars have paid little sustained attention to another form of communication, the letter.  Yet in addition to their published works, highly visible individuals such as Jones and Norton left extensive collections of personal correspondence written to both family and friends on both sides of the Atlantic.  As well as those left by these adult men, letters written by mixed-race children of the transatlantic fur trade, sent to England and Scotland for education and training, are powerful – and sometimes very poignant – ‘scribblings from below’ that circulated between Britain, fur trade posts, the Red River colony, and Australia.

While letters exchanged through colonial and imperial networks have often been seen as repositories of information about colonial conditions, scholars such as Charlotte McDonald, Kate Teltscher, and Erika Rappaport have demonstrated the centrality of personal letters for British subjects across the Empire, particularly to the constitution of imperial networks and formations.  Focusing on those Native and mixed-race travelers who form the basis of my research, my paper will address a number of related, yet divergent, questions about the practices of letter writing.  For one, these collections of correspondence demonstrate the varied ways in which their authors appropriated and used the written word to help create and sustain their own imperial networks, ones in which the worlds of formal and domestic politics intermeshed.  As well, these varied bodies of correspondence illustrate the ongoing forging of colonial subjectivities and their relationships to the particular spaces inhabited and, to some extent, created by their authors within colonial and imperial formations.  In keeping with the suggested theme of performance, these letters also give us insights into their authors’ performances of ‘Native’ or ‘mixed-race’ subjectivities on multiple stages.  Furthermore, these letters were not just reflections of the latter: they also were performances in which their authors struggled to write and create themselves.

Cecilia Morgan, University of Toronto, email
Cecilia Morgan is a Professor in the History of Education Field, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, where she teaches gender and colonial/imperial history, Canadian gender history, and the history of commemoration and memory.  Her latest major publication is ‘A Happy Holiday’: English Canadians and Transatlantic Tourism, 1870-1930 (University of Toronto Press, 2008).  She is currently working on a SSHRC-funded study of Native and mixed-race peoples’ travels from British North America and Canada, 1800-1920.  Her other project examines the lives of a number of Canadian-born women who crafted transnational careers in theatre and other forms of performance, 1880-1940.  Her article on Irish-Canadian actress Margaret Anglin will appear in the collection, Transnational Lives: Biographies of Global Modernity, 1700-present, Angela Woollacott, Desley Deacon, and Penny Russell, eds. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).

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Kirsty Reid – Writing racism on the streets of early nineteenth-century England

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: June 24-­26th 2010
Bristol, UK

Kirsty Reid (University of Bristol)
Writing racism on the streets of early nineteenth-century England

‘From his own mouth, this story is told
No doubt Sam Springer could much more unfold’

This paper opens with the story of Udolpho Samuel Springer, a runaway slave from St Kitts and an early nineteenth-century London street performer. In the late 1830s, Springer – also known as ‘Black Sampson’, ‘Sable Sam’, ‘Smutty Face’, ‘Santo Domingo Sampson’ and ‘The Black Indian Giant’ – told his life-story to a journalist called ‘Jack Rag’, who published it in a sixpenny periodical aimed at a popular, even street, market. In the course of his narrative, Springer related an account of how he had once talked his way around a crowd of men who were insisting on forcibly washing him white. The paper builds on this episode to consider the ways in which ideas about racial difference informed early nineteenth-century English street cultures more broadly. It begins by exploring two inter-related areas: firstly, the ways in which ideas about race figured in street literature, and particularly in hybrid oral/literary forms like broadside ballads; secondly, the extent to which other non-white itinerant performers (who were present in surprising numbers on the streets of nineteenth-century English cities) were like Springer able – or not – to talk, perform and even play their way around racism. It asks questions, for instance, about the widespread popularity of street musicians like ‘Black Billy Waters’ in these years. Having plumbed the depths of popular prejudice, the final section of the paper moves on to consider two episodes in which white labouring-class communities apparently sought to right racism in this period. Two cases of men of African and ex-slave descent who were tried and convicted in the English courts (one for theft, the other for the carnal knowledge of a young white girl) and sentenced to transportation to the Australian colonies will be considered. Their plight aroused strong feelings in their respective communities of Coventry and Hull, feelings that stimulated popular defence campaigns and mass petitions in which racism was cited as grounds for clemency. By drawing on a variety of archival, written and oral fragments, the paper seeks to explore some of the ways in which racism was variously inscribed, spoken, practiced, performed, negotiated and challenged on the streets of early nineteenth-century England.

Kirsty Reid, University of Bristol, email
Kirsty Reid is a Senior Lecturer in History at the University of Bristol and also currently a Sackler-Caird Research Fellow at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. Her research has primarily focused on convict transportation to the Australian colonies and her publications in this area include the prize-winning Gender, crime and empire: convicts, settlers and the state in early colonial Australia (Manchester, 2007). She is currently working on a new book based on her research project at the National Maritime Museum: Australia bound: convict voyaging, 1788-1868. Some of the stories and scribblings that will make up that book will shortly be made available on her recently launched blog.

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Fiona Paisley – Britain’s Gun Bragging: Aboriginal and Black on the Streets of Interwar London

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Fiona Paisley, (Griffiths University)
Britain’s Gun Bragging: Aboriginal and Black on the Streets of Interwar London

In 1929 and 1930, the South Asian-Aboriginal advocate of international intervention into Aboriginal rights in Australia, Anthony Martin Fernando kept a diary of his daily life on the streets of London. In three tiny notebooks he wrote (in sometimes staccato form) of local and global matters that shaped his existence, from the daily brutality of racism in East London markets to what he saw as Britain’s criminal influence as an imperial power in the twentieth century. Although Fernando was not unique among Aboriginal activists in placing Aboriginal rights within a global context in the interwar period, he does appear to have been the first to do so from the streets of Europe and London. Since the first years of the century, Fernando had protested the treatment of Aborigines when in Western Australia: having assumed the role of witness to injustices towards Aboriginal people living on the outskirts of a small mining town in that state, he found it impossible to remain in his country of birth, and in middle age left Australia forever. Over the next forty years, Fernando worked in Europe and England, as a metalworker then hawker and trader before being interned during WWI in Austria. After the war, he was employed as a clerk/servant for barristers in central London from where he escaped periodically to Europe to call upon the Swiss people in one instance and the Vatican in another to intervene in Aboriginal affairs. Later in the 1920s, Fernando picketed Australia House, advising passers-by of their implication in genocidal practices in the distant colony, and took up the soapbox at Hyde Park Corner as a passionate speaker against the failure of the Church to defend the colonized. It is from the perspective of these latter protests that this paper focuses on Fernando’s notebooks as a remarkable window onto working class race politics in interwar London as well as a performative literature given their evident use by Fernando to rehearse his public discourse on the limits of modernity. The notebooks are powerfully imbued with the psychological and physiological stresses experienced by Fernando as ‘exile’ and ‘witness’, and express not simply the rational foundations of political protest but also their psychological and embodied wellsprings.

Fiona Paisley, Griffiths Universityemail
Fiona Paisley teaches cultural history at Griffith University. She is the author of Glamour in the Pacific: Cultural Internationalism and Race Politics in the Women’s Pan-Pacific (2009), Loving Protection? Australian Feminism and Aboriginal Women’s Rights, 1919-1939 (2000), co-edited Uncommon Ground: White Women in Aboriginal History (2005), and has written numerous articles and chapters concerning gender, social justice, and settler colonial history in the first half of the twentieth century. She edited a special issue of the Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History on settler colonialism in 2003.

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Caroline Bressey – The writings of black working women in London 1880–1920

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Caroline Bressey (University College London)
The writings of black working women in London 1880–1920

The experiences of black women in Victorian and Edwardian London remain under-researched. Their experiences of racism and empire ‘at home’ are also little understood. This paper will try to bring a few of these women into sharper focus.

In April 1919 Grace Stevenson killed herself in the bedroom of a house in Ealing, west London where she worked as a domestic servant. Born in Jamaica, the inquest into Grace’s death revealed that she had been suffering from depression seemingly brought on by a broken heart, loneliness, racism and an inability to return ‘home’. A letter found with her body was reproduced, in part, by The Times beneath the headline BLACK WOMAN’S SUICIDE / TAUNTED ABOUT HER COLOUR.

I am black, but I didn’t make myself, people look at me but think I have no feeling.  I cannot bear it any longer. 
I am a lonely broken hearted girl, and I have no one in England. I tried to go home but cannot do so;
I have not enough money. … I cannot face the world any longer; it is too hard. I have no strength left in me. God Knows.

The inquest archives reflect something of her experiences as a working-class woman indicating, for example, her friendships with white working women. The extract from Grace’s letter itself provides a rare example of a black working woman expressing the pain of racial prejudice. It was written at a time when race relations were undergoing a transformation in Britain, coming to a head in race riots during the summer of 1919. This paper seeks to take Grace’s letter and other small pieces of women’s writing, such as newspaper advertisements, and consider them in the context of a number of ongoing questions. What do these writings reveal about black working women’s lives within the network of empire and the working class experience in Britain in general? What were the relationships between labour movements and racial discrimination in the workplace? How were these experiences recorded and discussed, and can such small literary archives – a few lines here or there – provide a relevant intervention for or even a representation of missing voices?

Caroline Bressey, University College London, email
Caroline Bressey’s research focuses on the presence in Victorian Britain, particularly London.  The aim of her research is to recover the experiences of life, and understandings of race and racism, among privileged members of the black intelligentsia as well as men, but especially women of the poorest classes.  She is a lecturer in the Department of Geography, University College London, and is currently researching a biography of Catherine Impey who published Anti-Caste, an early form of anti-racist writing first published in the 1880s.  She is a member of the management committee of BASA (the Black and Asian Studies Association) and Director of the Equiano Centre, UCL.

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Emma Wild-Wood – The Journal of Apolo Kivebulaya, CMS Evangelist

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Emma Wild-Wood (Cambridge)
The Journal of Apolo Kivebulaya, CMS Evangelist

Ganda Evangelist and Anglican priest, Apolo Kivebulaya, kept a journal for many of the 38 years he preached in villages on the Uganda-Congo border. Listing his intinery of preaching, teaching and building churches and reflecting on the power of Jesus Christ, his writings give glimpses into the way in which converts to Christianity understood their conversion and encouraged others to convert. This informal presentation suggestions that Apolo’s diary does not cohere with common perceptions surrounding modernity and tradition. It also suggests that, on the nexus of literacy and power, Apolo’s diary demonstrates that he operated along a continuum of power-as-control and power-as-empowerment. He understands himself as a missionary in the mould of St Paul and encouraged others to adopt literacy rather warfare in the uncertain early colonial period from 1895-1933.

Emma Wild-Wood is Director of the Henry Martyn Centre, in the Cambridge Theological Federation and is an affiliated lecturer of Cambridge University. She is also Commissioning Editor of the International Study Guides, published by SPCK. She studied Theology at the University of Edinburgh before teaching at the Provincial Theological College of the Anglican Church of Congo and in Uganda. Her research interests lie in the history of Christianities in the Great Lakes area of Africa and she has published /The East African Revival: History and Legacies/, co-edited with Kevin Ward, Kampala, Fountain, 2010 and /Migration and Christian Identity in Congo (DRC), /Leiden, Brill, 2008. An Article on Apolo Kivebulaya as a figure of cultural interface entitled, ‘Saint Apolo from Europe or What’s in a Luganda Name?’appeared in/ Church History,/ 77, 1(2008)

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Maria Nugent – The quest for title deeds: The meaning of texts in Aboriginal people’s oral traditions

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Maria Nugent (Australian National University)
The quest for title deeds: The meaning of texts in Aboriginal people’s oral traditions

This paper considers the ways in which Aboriginal people engaged with what might be called the dilemmas of documentation in disputes and negotiations over land in south-east Australia in the period from the late nineteenth to the middle part of the twentieth century. I take as my focus an oral tradition among Aboriginal people that the reserve lands they occupied had been granted to them in perpetuity by Queen Victoria. By the opening decades of the twentieth century, this oral tradition came to include a reference to a quest for the (lost? non-existent?) title deeds that would prove that strongly-held belief to be true. In this paper, I use the reference to, and the attendant quest for, the title deeds to investigate the ways in which Aboriginal people sought to respond to new bureaucratic demands for written evidence in historical matters, especially concerning occupation of and rights to land. The insertion of a ‘text’ as a central element in this Aboriginal oral tradition allows some consideration of the fraught relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal modes of history, and their divergent reliance upon oral remembrance and written documentation. I suggest that the elaboration of the original oral tradition to include title deeds registers difficult dilemmas or challenges that documents, either or both as historical evidence and legally-binding contracts, raise for dispossessed Aboriginal people as they sought to have land matters settled. At the same time, attention to the oral tradition’s engagement with the problem of documentation provides an important complement to studies examining Aboriginal people’s literary acts, such as writing petitions and letters, in the same period and in pursuit of the same ends (i.e. certainty over rights to land). For those Aboriginal people who did not necessarily employ the technologies of writing themselves, this oral tradition, centred as it is upon a powerful (if absent) text, provides evidence of their constant and creative negotiation with writing and its implications.

Maria Nugent, Australian National University,  email
Maria Nugent is Research Fellow in the Australian Centre for Indigenous History at the Australian National University in Canberra. She’s the author of Botany Bay: Where Histories Meet (Allen & Unwin, 2005) and Captain Cook Was Here (CUP, 2009).

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Claudia Haake – Writing Against Colonialism. Native American Political Activism against Land Loss in the Age of Removal

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Claudia Haake (La Trobe University)
Writing Against Colonialism. Native American Political Activism against Land Loss in the Age of Removal

The paper will explore Native American political opposition to loss of land as a consequence of tribal removal in the 19th century. In the United States of America, the nineteenth century, or more specifically the period from the 1820s to the 1880s, was a time of mass displacements and land losses for indigenous people. Removal took place over and in spite of massive Native opposition. However, the writings of Native Americans in opposition to removal and land loss have so far received only scant attention, with the possible exception of the Cherokees. This research draws on the letters written by Native Americans to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Secretary of the Interior, and the President in order to focus on a broad range of Native Americans as political actors and by taking the analysis beyond that of just one tribe. Contrary to what much existing research seems to suggest, not all letters were composed by chiefs and leaders and thus this paper will extend beyond what chiefs and Native intellectuals have had to say to include the opinions of the ‘common man’ which are so difficult to access but which could differ considerably from those held by chiefs. Regardless of who wrote the letters and of how Native American conveyed their arguments about why they needed and wanted to retain their lands and stay in place, tribal representations centred around a number of common themes. Legal arguments, ideas about civilization levels reached as well as need-based argumentations and those centring on attachment to land are foremost among these and will form the basis of the proposed paper.

This paper is part of a larger project focussing on five tribes – the Cherokees, Iroquois, Navajos, Delawares, and Sioux – affected by land losses in the age of removal and will draw on examples from the research done so far (primarily Cherokee, Delaware, Iroquois).

Claudia Haake, La Trobe University, email
Claudia Haake is Lecturer in History at La Trobe University, Melbourne. Her primary research interest is Native American History from the 19th century onward. She is especially interested in North American Natives from Mexico and the US. Her major areas of interest in Native American Studies are ethnicity, identity and culture. Her work for her first book has focused on identity issues in a transnational comparative framework, investigating the cases of the Mexican Yaquis and the United States Delawares. She also has compared state policies towards indigenous peoples in Mexico and the US. Rights, especially land and treaty rights are among her other foci in research and teaching and she is currently working on a study about indigenous land loss in the United States in the 19th century. She also maintains an interest in minorities in the United States as well as in the history of 20th century Guatemala.

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Jacqueline Van Gent – Indigenous women’s strategies of writing the colonial self

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Jacqueline Van Gent (Univ of Western Australia)
Indigenous women’s strategies of writing the colonial self

This paper will discuss autobiographies and letters written by indigenous women associated with Moravian missions in the Atlantic World and in Australia in the 18th – 20th centuries.

Women converts’ writings are relatively few, and thus Moravian collections are particularly interesting because they contain a significant number of indigenous women’s letters and spiritual autobiographies since the early eighteenth century. Although this mission society promoted specific textual strategies of self-representations which were shaped by missionaries’ patriarchal perceptions of women’s religious capacities, indigenous converts’ writings show an engagement with religious and secular colonial authorities that defies simple submission.

Western literacy could provide indigenous and slave women with a degree of political agency when used for instance in petitions to secular authorities. Women’s texts also served to remind mission authorities of their own inherent contradictions of advocating the potential of human equality in conversion while operating in a colonial social and textual space. For Moravian women converts, letters and autobiographies provided a rhetorical strategy to insist on ‘sisterhood’ in frontier societies which sought to create social distance and hierarchies based on religion, race and gender.

In this paper I propose to read indigenous women’s letters and autobiographies simultaneously as texts and as social relationships in cross-cultural encounters in a colonial world. I am in particular interested in women’s strategies to negotiate gendered and cultural differences. Finally, the paper will address the question to what extent the scope for writing the colonial self changed for indigenous converts between the commencement of Moravian missions in 1734 and the later colonial period.

Jacqueline Van Gent, Univ of Western Australia, email
Jacqueline Van Gent teaches in History and Women’s Studies at The University of Western Australia. Her research interests include gender and missions in the early modern and late colonial period. She has carried out historical research on contact history and religious change at Lutheran missions in Australia and published in Australian Historical Studies and Journal of Religious History. As a member of an ARC-funded collaborative research team she is currently working on a project about indigenous women as agents of religious change on Protestant missions in Australia and PNG. She is also researching a book entitled “’First Fruits’: Indigenous Conversions and Gender in the Atlantic World” on the experiences of eighteenth-century indigenous converts associated with Moravian missions.

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Norman Etherington – Begging to Preach: Black Evangelists’ Written Responses to the Colonial State’s War on Mission Christianity in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, 1900-1910

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Norman Etherington -(University of Western Australia)
Begging to Preach: Black Evangelists’ Written Responses to the Colonial State’s War on Mission Christianity in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, 1900-1910

From the late 1890s to 1910, the settler colonial administration of Natal and Zululand was engaged in continual conflict with Christian missions. In a series a moves aimed at halting the missions’ programme of African advancement, the government of Natal first attacked mission education, then its control of Reserves, and finally mounted a campaign to ban all preaching by Africans not under the direct supervision of white males. The attack on African preaching was a reaction to the so-called ‘Ethiopian Movement’, which advocated religious independence from white control. The colonial state chose to interpret all African evangelization as Ethiopianism, even when African preachers were loyal adherents of mainstream European and American Missionary operations. Secret police were employed to spy on African preachers in the hope of detecting subversive ideas. Regular police moved in to destroy churches and other mission buildings at places where no white man appeared to be in charge. African evangelists attempted to use their command of written English to protest against these measures. This took the form of petitions to government, letters to officials, protests to Mission authorities and articles in Zulu-medium newspapers. This paper documents and analyses the range of texts produced by African Christians in their attempts to fend off the colonial state’s war on black evangelists.

Norman Etherington, University of Western Australia, email
Norman Etherington is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Western Australia. He is the author of many articles and books including: Preachers, Peasants and Politics in Southeast Africa (London, 1978), Theories of Imperialism: War, Conquest & Capital (London, 1984), Rider Haggard (Boston, 1984), The Great Treks: the Transformation of Southern Africa, 1815-1854 (London, 2001). He is also editor of Missions and Empire Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series (Oxford, 2005).

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Peggy Brock – Indigenous Christians’ Ethnographic Writings

in Academic Service - Archive by on June 25th, 2010

Writing the Empire: Scribblings from Below

An international & interdisciplinary conference

Phillipe de Vigors, ‘Convicts letter writing at Cockatoo Island, New South Wales, 1849’
Reproduced by kind permission of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney

 

Event Dates: 25 June 2010
Bristol, UK

Peggy Brock, Edith Cowan University
Indigenous Christians’ Ethnographic Writings

Scholars are increasingly aware of the close collaborations between Christian missions in British colonies and anthropologists. Anthropologists often based themselves at missions, relying on the knowledge and experience of missionaries to facilitate their access to Indigenous societies. Many missionaries also took an interest in Indigenous societies, writing extensive ethnographic descriptions of the peoples among whom they lived and worked. However, relatively little research has been undertaken on the Indigenous informants of both secular and missionary ethnographers, or on the ethnographic works written by first generation Christians. These people were in a unique situation – many having grown up in pre-missionized and/or pre-colonial societies before becoming literate and gaining an objectified distance from their own societies. Their ethnographic writings were influenced both by their firsthand experience and deep knowledge of their own societies, and the expectations of the distant Christian and scientific readership of their published work.

In this paper I will discuss the influence of Christian and anthropological ideas on the ethnographic writings of Indigenous Christians in southern Africa, the Pacific and Canada. The issues I intend to address are: how were these texts shaped; were they written under the direction of missionaries, or independently of them; to what extent did they reflect contemporary anthropological paradigms; and for which audiences were they produced?

Peggy Brock, Edith Cowan University, email
Peggy Brock is Professor of Colonial & Indigenous History at Edith Cowan University, Western Australia. She is the author of many books and articles including: Outback Ghettos. A History of Aboriginal Institutionalisation and Survival (Melbourne, 1993) and Negotiating Colonialism: the Life and Times of Arthur Wellington Clah (UBC Press, forthcoming). She is also editor of Indigenous Peoples and Religious Change (Leiden, 2005) and Words and Silences. Aboriginal Women, Politics and Land (Sydney, 2001).

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