Patrick Pollard – Classical Improprieties in Modern France: Before and After Freud: Le Roi Candaule and Oedipe by Andre Gide

Patrick Pollard, BA, PhD (Lond), is Emeritus Professor of French at Birkbeck College, University of London. His research interests lie in the history of ideas (with an emphasis on 19-20th c. France), the history of literature (with publications on Gide, Stendhal, Zola, and the reception of Wilde and Robert Browning in France) and the history of sexuality (homosexuality; has published on Gide, Magnus Hirschfeld, and researches on gay novels published in France in the 3rd Republic (i.e. 1871-1914) and Jean Genet). He also conducts research on the classical tradition in France (i.e. the history of translation from Greek and Latin authors into French; the modern reuse of ancient myths; gender and sexuality in the ancient world and its relationship to modern discourse in this area).



The story of Gyges and Candaules

Ancient texts

Archilochus, fragment 19 (West).
Herodotus, I.8-15.
Plato, Respublica, 359d, f, and 612b.
Cicero, De officiis, II, 9. 38 (a translation of Plato).
Nicolaus Damascenus, in F.H.G., III, 343-64.
Diogenianus, in Paroemiographi graeci (ed. Leutsch), vol.1, p.232.
Plutarch, Moralia (‘Quaestiones graecae’ 302A; ‘Quaestiones convivales’ 622F; ‘Adversus Colotem’ 1108D-E).
Philostratus, Heroicus, 137-8.
Achilles Tatius, De amoribus Leucippes et Clitophontis, I.8.
Aelius Aristides, XLV.56.
Libanius, Oratio funebris, 18.294.
Libanius, Orationes, 25.69.



GIDE, A. Le Roi Candaule. Édition critique, avec une introduction et des variantes, par P. Pollard (Lyon, 2000).
GIDE, A. Œdipe. Suivi de brouillons et de textes inédits.Édité par Clara Debard (Paris, 2007)

CLAUDE, J. André Gide et le théâtre (Paris, 1992).
McLAREN, J.C. The Theater of André Gide (Baltimore, 1953).
POLLARD, P. André Gide. Homosexual Moralist (New Haven, 1991).
SMITH, K.F. ‘The Literary Tradition of Gyges and Candaules’, American Journal of Philology, 41 (1), Jan.-March 1920, p.1-37.


Other relevant publications by Patrick Pollard

Répertoire des lectures d’André Gide. I: L’Antiquité classique. Paris: ATAG; London: Birkbeck College, 2000. 8vo 190pp. pbk. ISBN 0 907904 81 5.

Répertoire des lectures d’André Gide. II: Lectures anglaises. London: Birkbeck College, 2004. 8vo 2 vols xxiv, 419pp. pbk. ISBN 0 907904 13 0.

Répertoire des lectures d’André Gide. III: Divers (L’Orient, la Scandinavie, l’Italie, l’Ibérie et l’Amérique latine, la Grèce moderne). London: Birkbeck College, 2006. 8vo 155pp. pbk. ISBN 0 907904 27 0.

Répertoire des lectures d’André Gide: IV: L’Allemagne et les pays germanophones. [London: Birkbeck College, 2009 – to be published later this year.]

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